Girls are more likely to report committing less serious forms of IPV, including as a means of self-defense, whereas boys are more likely to report committing more severe acts of IPV, including threats, physical violence and controlling a partner.Other research indicates that boys who have been abused in childhood by a family member are more prone to IPV perpetration, while girls who have been abused in childhood by a family member are prone to lack empathy and self-efficacy; but the risks for the likelihood of IPV perpetration and victimization among adolescents vary and are not well understood.The behavior and thoughts of the victim then change in response to the emotional abuse.Short-term effects of emotional abuse include: A partner may also find themselves trying to do anything possible to bring the relationship back to the way it was before the abuse. Date violence and date rape among adolescents: Associations with disordered eating behaviors and psychological health. American Journal of Public Health, 91(10), 1679-1685.
Electronic dating violence: A brief guide for educators and parents.
"If it hurts you, then it is not a joke:" Adolescents’ ideas about girls’ and boys’ use and experience of abusive behavior in dating relationships.
J., Saint-Pierre, M., & The Dating Violence Research Team (2006).
Social-ecological influences on teen dating violence: A youth rights and capabilities approach to exploring context.
The effects of physical abuse are obvious – a black eye, a cut or a bruise – but the effects of emotional abuse may be harder to spot.