As early as the 11th century Russians from the Novgorod Republic had occasionally penetrated into Siberia.In the 14th century the Novgorodians started exploring the Kara Sea and the West-Siberian river Ob.
Apart from their discoveries in Siberia, Alaska, Central Asia and the Extreme North, Russian explorers have made significant contributions to the exploration of the Arctic and Antarctic, the Pacific islands, as well as deep-sea and space exploration. Its main peninsulas are the Iberian, Italian, Crimean and Balkan, located in southern Europe, and the Scandinavian and Jutland, located in northern Europe. Europe can be divided into four major physical regions, running from north to south: Western Uplands, North European Plain, Central Uplands and Alpine Mountains. western uplands: geologically older, lower, more stable than Alpines … Europe is a peninsula of the Eurasian supercontinent.The history of exploration by citizens or subjects of the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, the Russian Empire, the Tsardom of Russia and other Russian predecessor states forms a significant part of the history of Russia as well as the history of the world.At 17,075,400 square kilometres (6,592,850 sq mi), Russia is the largest country in the world, covering more than a ninth of the Earth’s land mass.